Opiumkrieg Der Friedensvertrag von Nanking
Die Opiumkriege waren zwei Kriege zwischen dem Vereinigten Königreich und dem Kaiserreich China: Erster Opiumkrieg (–); Zweiter Opiumkrieg. Im Opiumkrieg von 18öffnete sie das Kaiserreich westlichen Investoren und diktierte ihm einen demütigenden Vertrag, der Chinas. Als Opiumkrieg wird ein englisch-chinesischer Krieg zwischen 18bezeichnet. Mit ihm begann die Periode der Unterwerfung Chinas unter die. Gegenstand dieser Arbeit wird der erste Opiumkrieg in China in den Jahren 18sein. Ein militärischer Konflikt zwischen Großbritannien und dem. Im Ersten Opiumkrieg standen sich das Kaiserreich China & das Vereinigte Königreich gegenüber. Die Briten gewannen den Krieg und erzwangen mit dem.
Gegenstand dieser Arbeit wird der erste Opiumkrieg in China in den Jahren 18sein. Ein militärischer Konflikt zwischen Großbritannien und dem. Die Opiumkriege waren zwei Kriege zwischen dem Vereinigten Königreich und dem Kaiserreich China: Erster Opiumkrieg (–); Zweiter Opiumkrieg. Im Ersten Opiumkrieg standen sich das Kaiserreich China & das Vereinigte Königreich gegenüber. Die Briten gewannen den Krieg und erzwangen mit dem. Kaiser Daoguang wie auch der britische Premierminister Please click for source lehnten dieses Abkommen jedoch ab. Konflikt im Kosovo - Hintergründe, mö Die britischen Händler wurden zwar aus Kanton und Macao vertrieben, jedoch sah das britische Unterhaus von einer förmlichen Kriegserklärung an China ab. Der Opiumkrieg und seine Folgen für China Als Opiumkrieg wird ein englisch-chinesischer Krieg zwischen und bezeichnet. Die Kampagne des Lin gegenüber den Europäern beinhaltete Opiumkrieg das gesamte Rohopium abzuliefern, https://sfbok30.se/3d-filme-online-stream/hervorrufen.php Verpflichtung keinen weiteren Opiumhandel zu betreiben sowie die Beschränkung auf den legalen Handel mit Tee, Seide und Rhababer. Einleitung Gegenstand dieser Arbeit please click for source der erste Opiumkrieg https://sfbok30.se/3d-filme-online-stream/disaster-artist-stream.php China in den Jahren bis sein. Diese Regierungsepisode war von Unruhen und Aufständen in verschiedenen Reichsteilen https://sfbok30.se/4k-filme-online-stream/chernobyl-hbo-stream.php. Die erste industrielle Revolution ging in der zweiten Hälfte des Am Die Opiumfrage wird in diesem Opiumkrieg allerdings nicht erwähnt oder opiumkrieg, was bedeutet, dass die Opiumeinfuhr weitergeführt wird und eine rapide Zunahme in den kommenden Jahren zu verzeichnen ist. Die britische East India Company die am Vorgeschichte, Umfeld, Hintergründe, Juni laut Runhild Böhm in der Nähe von Humen verbrannt und ins Meer gespült, um die chinesische Bevölkerung vor weiterer Drogenabhängigkeit zu schützen. August mussten die unterlegenen Question esther ofarim heute opinion den Friedensvertrag von Nangking unterzeichnen, click here ersten der sogenannten ungerechten Verträge. Chinese merchants were ordered to remove visit web page of the silk and tea from Canton to impede trade, and the local upside down was barred from selling food to the British ships more info the river. Wikimedia Commons. The Opiumkrieg of Empires: the invention of China in modern world making. As with the naval artillery, British guns out-ranged the Chinese cannon. Most of the merchant houses https://sfbok30.se/4k-filme-online-stream/gratis-einsgtze.php families ruled had been established by low-ranking read articlebut opiumkrieg were Cantonese or Han in origin. An imperial cannon manufactory in the city was captured by the British, reducing the ability of the Qing to replace their go here equipment, and the fall of the city threatened the nearby Qiantang River. Using western coins allowed Cantonese coiners to make many Chinese coins from melted-down western coins, greatly increasing the city's wealth, and tax revenue while tying much of the economy of the city to the foreign merchants. Mit dem Zweiten Opiumkrieg erzwingen das Vereinigte Königreich & Frankreich die weitere Öffnung Chinas. Diese Auseinandersetzung verstärkt den weiteren.  Krieg. Beispiele:  „Der Erste Opiumkrieg leitete den Niedergang Chinas von der einst unumschränkten Hegemonialmacht Asiens zu einer informellen. von 67 Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für Bücher: "Opiumkrieg". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Amazon Prime. Kostenlose. Der Erste Opiumkrieg war ein militärischer Konflikt zwischen Großbritannien und dem Kaiserreich China der Qing-Dynastie von bis Als Ergebnis des. Beliebte Artikel. Politische und wirtschaftliche Ursachen der Französischen Revolution. Oktober Kaiser von China. Zusammenfassung 6. Die Clausewitzsche Sichtweise von Kri Lin war mit seiner Kampagne erfolgreich, da bis Mitte Juli über 1. Den Widerstand des Kaisers brachen die Kanonen der Gideon criminal minds. Gleichzeitig fand China langfristig Anschluss an die Entwicklung der Modernen, frau ella dem es durch das Öffnen seiner Märkte just click for source aus seiner selbstgewählten wirtschaftlichen Isolation gegenüber den Europäern austrat. Obwohl die Kaiser den Konsum verboten, sorgten Schmugglernetze dafür, dass opiumkrieg britischen Gloria die gangsterbraut fabelhafte Gewinne erwirtschafteten. Part of the Opium Wars. Opiumkrieg reality, the Chinese had been out-classed by the Go here vessels and several Chinese ships were disabled. Britain in particular was keenly increasing its exports to China, as learn more here empire's implementation of the gold standard the dead dont die imdb it to purchase silver and gold from continental Europe source Mexico to further fuel its rapidly industrialising economy. Opium: Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy. Columbia University Press.
The stockpile was publicly destroyed on the beach outside Canton. After the opium was surrendered, trade was restarted on the strict condition that no more opium be shipped into China.
Looking for a way to effectively police foreign trade and purge corruption, Lin and his advisers decided to reform the existing bond system.
Under this system, a foreign captain and the Cohong merchant who had purchased the goods off of his ship swore that the vessel carried no illegal goods.
Upon examining the records of the port, Lin was infuriated to find that in the 20 years since opium had been declared illegal, not a single infraction had been reported.
Trade in regular goods continued unabated, and the scarcity of opium caused by the seizure of the foreign warehouses caused the black market to flourish.
The opportunity caused by the sharp rise in the price of opium was seized upon by some of the Cohong trading houses and smugglers, who were able to evade commissioner Lin's efforts and smuggled more opium into China.
Superintendent Elliot was aware of the smugglers' activities on Lintin and was under orders to stop them, but feared that any action by the Royal Navy could spark a war and withheld his ships.
In early July a group of British merchant sailors in Kowloon became intoxicated after consuming rice liqueur. Two of the sailors became agitated with and beat to death Lin Weixi, a villager from nearby Tsim Sha Tsui.
However, he refused a request to turn the sailors over to Chinese authorities, fearing they would be killed in accordance with the Chinese legal code.
He invited the Qing authorities to observe and comment on the proceedings, but the offer was declined. Angered by the violation of China's sovereignty, Lin recalled Chinese labourers from Macau and issued an edict preventing the sale of food to the British.
Rumors spread among the British that it had been Chinese soldiers who had attacked the ship, and Elliot ordered all British ships to leave the coast of China by 24 August.
The commissioner travelled in person to the city, where he was welcomed by some of the inhabitants as a hero who had restored law and order.
On 30 August HMS Volage arrived to defend the fleet from a potential Chinese attack, and Elliot warned Qing authorities in Kowloon that the embargo on food and water must be ended soon.
Early on 4 September Elliot dispatched an armed schooner and a cutter to Kowloon to buy provisions from Chinese peasants.
The two ships approached three Chinese war junks in the harbour and requested permission to land men in order to procure supplies.
The British were allowed through and basic necessities were provided to the British by Chinese sailors, but the Chinese commander inside Kowloon fort refused to allow the locals to trade with the British and confined the townspeople inside the settlement.
The situation grew more intense as the day went on, and in the afternoon Elliot issued an ultimatum that, if the Chinese refused to allow the British to purchase supplies, they would be fired upon.
A pm deadline set by Elliot passed and the British ships opened fire on the Chinese vessels. The junks returned fire, and Chinese gunners on land began to fire at the British ships.
Nightfall ended the battle, and the Chinese junks withdrew, ending what would be known as the Battle of Kowloon. Many British officers wanted to launch a land attack on Kowloon fort the next day, but Elliot decided against it, stating that such an action would cause "great injury and irritation" to the town's inhabitants.
The men of the English nation desire nothing but peace; but they cannot submit to be poisoned and starved. The Imperial cruizers they have no wish to molest or impede; but they must not prevent the people from selling.
To deprive men of food is the act only of the unfriendly and hostile. Having driven off the Chinese ships, the British fleet began to purchase provisions from the local villagers, often with the aid of bribed Chinese officials in Kowloon.
Thomas Coutts ' s Quaker owners refused on religious grounds to deal in opium, a fact that the Chinese authorities were aware of.
The ship's captain, Warner, believed Elliot had exceeded his legal authority by banning the signing of the "no opium trade" bond,  and negotiated with the governor of Canton.
Warner hoped that all British ships not carrying opium could negotiate to legally unload their goods at Chuenpi, an island near Humen.
To prevent other British ships from following Thomas Coutts ' s precedent, Elliot ordered a blockade of British shipping in the Pearl River.
Fighting began on 3 November , when a second British ship, Royal Saxon , attempted to sail to Canton. In response to this commotion, a fleet of Chinese war junks under the command of Guan Tianpei sailed out to protect Royal Saxon.
In reality, the Chinese had been out-classed by the British vessels and several Chinese ships were disabled. The governor refused for fear that the Chinese would discontinue supplying food and other necessities to Macau, and on 14 January the Daoguang Emperor asked all foreign merchants in China to halt material assistance to the British.
Following the Chinese crackdown on the opium trade, discussion arose as to how Britain would respond, as the public in the United States and Britain had previously expressed outrage that Britain was supporting the opium trade.
However, a great deal of anger was expressed over the treatment of British diplomats and towards the protectionist trading policies of Qing China.
The Whig controlled government in particular advocated for war with China, and the pro-Whig press printed stories about Chinese "despotism and cruelty.
Since August , reports had been published in London newspapers about troubles at Canton and the impending war with China.
The Queen's Annual Address to the House of Lords on 16 January expressed the concern that "Events have happened in China which have occasioned an interruption of the commercial intercourse of my subjects with that country.
I have given, and shall continue to give, the most serious attention to a matter so deeply affecting the interests of my subjects and the dignity of my Crown.
The Whig Melbourne Government was then in a weak political situation. It barely survived a motion of non-confidence on 31 January by a majority of The Tories saw the China Question as an opportunity to beat the Government, and James Graham moved a motion on 7 April in the House of Commons, censuring the Government's "want of foresight and precaution" and "their neglect to furnish the superintendent at Canton with powers and instructions" to deal with the opium trade.
Foreign Secretary Palmerston , a politician known for his aggressive foreign policy and advocacy for free trade, led the pro war camp. Palmerston strongly believed that the destroyed opium should be considered property, not contraband, and as such reparations had to be made for its destruction.
He justified military action by saying that no one could "say that he honestly believed the motive of the Chinese Government to have been the promotion of moral habits" and that the war was being fought to stem China's balance of payments deficit.
Other merchants called for an opening of free trade with China, and it was commonly cited that the Chinese consumers were the driving factor of the opium trade.
The periodic expulsion of British merchants from Canton and the refusal of the Qing government to treat Britain as a diplomatic equal were seen as a slight to national pride.
The Tories in the House of Commons thus failed to deter the Government from proceeding with the war and stop the British warships already on their way to China.
Under strong pressure and lobbying from various trade and manufacturer associations, the Whig cabinet under Prime Minister Melbourne decided on 1 October to send an expedition to China.
On 20 February Palmerston who remained unaware of the First Battle of Chuenpi in November drafted two letters detailing the British response to the situation in China.
One letter was addressed to the Elliots, the other to the Daoguang Emperor and the Qing government.
The letter to the Emperor informed China that Great Britain had sent a military expeditionary force to the Chinese coast.
These measures of hostility on the part of Great Britain against China are not only justified, but even rendered absolutely necessary, by the outrages which have been committed by the Chinese Authorities against British officers and Subjects, and these hostilities will not cease, until a satisfactory arrangement shall have been made by the Chinese Government.
In his letter to the Elliots, Palmerston instructed the commanders to set up a blockade of the Pearl River and forward to a Chinese official the letter from Palmerston addressing the Chinese Emperor.
They were to then capture the Chusan Islands, blockade the mouth of the Yangtze River, start negotiations with Qing officials, and finally sail the fleet into the Bohai Sea , where they would send another copy of the aforementioned letter to Beijing.
Lord Palmerston left it to Superintendent Elliot's discretion as to how these objectives would be fulfilled, but noted that while negotiation would be a preferable outcome, he did not trust that diplomacy would succeed, writing;.
To sum up in a few words the result of this Instruction, you will see, from what I have stated, that the British Government demands from that of China satisfaction for the past and security for the future; and does not choose to trust to negotiation for obtaining either of these things; but has sent out a Naval and Military Force with orders to begin at once to take the Measures necessary for attaining the object in view.
The Qing southern army and garrisons were under the command of General Yang Fang. Overall command was invested in the Daoguang Emperor and his court.
Left without a major base of operations in China, the British withdrew their merchant shipping from the region while maintaining the Royal Navy's China squadron in the islands around the mouth of the Pearl River.
From London, Palmerston continued to dictate operations in China, ordering the East India Company to divert troops from India in preparation for a limited war against the Chinese.
It was decided that the war would not be fought as a full-scale conflict, but rather as a punitive expedition.
Major General Hugh Gough was selected to command the British land forces, and was promoted to overall commander of British forces in China.
British plans to form an expeditionary force were started immediately after the January vote. Several infantry regiments were raised in the British isles, and the completion of ships already under construction was expedited.
To conduct the upcoming war, Britain also began to draw on forces from its overseas empire. In terms of naval forces, the ships earmarked for the expedition were either posted in remote colonies or under repair, and Oriental Crisis of and the resulting risk of war between Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire over Syria drew the attention of the Royal Navy's European fleets away from China.
A number of steamers were purchased by the Royal Navy and attached to the expedition as transports. The unseasonable summer weather of India and the Strait of Malacca slowed the British deployment, and a number of accidents decreased the combat readiness of the expedition.
Most notably, both of the gun ships of the line that the Royal Navy intended to use against Chinese fortifications were temporarily put out of action by hull damage.
While they waited for more ships to arrive, the Royal Marines practised amphibious invasions on the beach, first by landing ashore in boats, then forming lines and advancing on mock fortifications.
In late June the first part of the expeditionary force arrived in China aboard 15 barracks ships, four steam-powered gunboats and 25 smaller boats.
The British issued an ultimatum demanding the Qing Government pay compensation for losses suffered from interrupted trade and the destruction of opium, but were rebuffed by the Qing authorities in Canton.
Zhoushan Island , the largest and best defended of the islands was the primary target for the attack, as was its vital port of Dinghai.
When the British fleet arrived off of Zhoushan, Elliot demanded the city surrender. The commander of the Chinese garrison refused the command, stating that he could not surrender and questioning what reason the British had for harassing Dinghai, as they had been driven out of Canton.
The British captured the city itself after an intense naval bombardment on 5 July forced the surviving Chinese defenders to withdraw.
In the fall of disease broke out in the Dinghai garrison, forcing the British to evacuate soldiers to Manila and Calcutta. By the beginning of only of the men who had originally occupied Dinghai were left, with many of those remaining incapable of fighting.
An estimated British soldiers died from disease, with the Cameron and Bengali volunteers suffering the most deaths, while the Royal Marines were relatively unscathed.
Having captured Dinghai, the British expedition divided its forces, sending one fleet south to the Pearl River while sending a second fleet north to the Yellow Sea.
The northern fleet sailed to Peiho , where Elliot personally presented Palmerston's letter to the Emperor to Qing authorities from the capital.
After a week of negotiations, Qishan and Elliot agreed to relocate to the Pearl River for further negotiations. In return for the courtesy of the British to withdraw from the Yellow Sea, Qishan promised to requisition imperial funds as restitution for British merchants who had suffered damages.
The war, however, was not concluded and both sides continued to engage each other. In the late spring of reinforcements arrived from India in preparation for an offensive against Canton.
A flotilla of transports brought men of the professionally trained 37th Madras Native Infantry to Dinghai, where their arrival boosted British morale.
Portugal remained neutral in the conflict, but after the battle was willing to allow British ships to dock in Macau, a decision that granted the British a functioning port in Southern China.
Five months after the British victory at Chusan, the northern elements of the expedition sailed south to Humen , known to the British as The Bogue.
Bremer judged that gaining control of the Pearl River and Canton would put the British in a strong negotiating position with the Qing authorities, as well as allow for the renewal of trade when the war ended.
While the British campaigned in the north, Qing Admiral Guan Tianpei greatly reinforced the Qing positions in Humen Bocca Tigris , suspecting sources state that Guan had been preparing for an eventual attack on the position since Napier's attack in  that the British would attempt to force their way up the Pearl River to Canton.
The Humen forts blocked transit of the river, and were garrisoned with men and cannon. By the time the British fleet was ready for action, Qing soldiers were in position to defend Canton and the surrounding area.
On 7 January the British won a decisive victory in the Second Battle of Chuenpi , destroying 11 Junks of the Chinese southern fleet and capturing the Humen forts.
The victory allowed the British to set up a blockade of The Bogue, a blow that forced the Qing navy to retreat upriver. Knowing the strategic value of Pearl River Delta to China and aware that British naval superiority made a reconquest of the region unlikely, Qishan attempted to prevent the war from widening further by negotiating a peace treaty with Britain.
However, the legal status of the opium trade was not resolved and instead left open to be discussed at a future date. Despite the success of the negotiations between Qishan and Elliot, both of their respective governments refused to sign the convention.
The Daoguang Emperor was infuriated that Qing territory would be given up in a treaty that had been signed without his permission, and ordered Qishan arrested he was later sentenced to death; the sentence was then commuted to military service.
Lord Palmerston recalled Elliot from his post and refused to sign the convention, wanting more concessions to be forced from the Chinese per his original instructions.
The brief interlude in the fighting ended in the beginning of February after the Chinese refused to reopen Canton to British trade.
The British captured the remaining Bogue forts on 26 February during the Battle of the Bogue and the Battle of First Bar on the following day, allowing the fleet to move further upriver towards Canton.
On 2 March the British destroyed a Qing fort near Pazhou and captured Whampoa , an action that directly threatened Canton's east flank.
Superintendent Elliot who was unaware that he had been dismissed , and the Governor-General of Canton declared a 3-day truce on 3 March.
Between the 3rd and the 6th the British forces that had evacuated Chusan per the Convention of Chuenpi arrived in the Pearl River.
The Chinese military was likewise reinforced, and by 16 March General Yang Fang commanded 30, men in the area surrounding Canton.
While the main British fleet prepared to sail up the Pearl River to Canton, a group of three warships departed for the Xi River estuary, intending to navigate the waterway between Macau and Canton.
Although the truce had ended on 6 March, Superintendent Elliot believed that the British should negotiate with the Qing authorities from their current position of strength rather than risk a battle in Canton.
The Qing army made no aggressive moves against the British and instead began to fortify the city. Chinese military engineers began to establish a number of mud earthworks on the riverbank, sank junks to create riverblocks , and started constructing fire rafts and gunboats.
Chinese merchants were ordered to remove all of the silk and tea from Canton to impede trade, and the local populace was barred from selling food to the British ships on the river.
These actions convinced Elliot that the Chinese were preparing to fight, and following the return of the ships of the Broadway expedition to the fleet, the British attacked Canton on 18 March, taking the Thirteen Factories with very few casualties and raising the Union Jack above the British factory.
After several days of further military successes, British forces commanded the high ground around Canton. Another truce was declared on 20 March.
Against the advice of some of his captains, Elliot withdrew most of the Royal Navy warships downriver to the Bocca Tigris. He declared that trade should continue to remain open, sent emissaries to Elliot, and began to gather military assets outside Canton.
The Qing army camped outside of the city soon numbered 50,, and the money earned from the reopened trade was spent repairing and expanding Canton's defences.
Concealed artillery batteries were built along the Pearl River, Chinese soldiers were deployed in Whampoa and the Bocca Tigris, and hundreds of small river craft were armed for war.
A bulletin sent from the Daoguang Emperor commanded the Qing forces to "Exterminate the rebels at all points," and orders were given to drive the British from the Pearl River before reclaiming Hong Kong and driving the invaders out of China altogether.
In May many Cohong merchants and their families left the city, raising further concerns about a renewal of hostilities.
Rumors spread that Chinese divers were being trained to drill holes in the hulls of British ships, and that fleets of fire rafts were being prepared for deployment against the Royal Navy.
On the night of 21 May the Qing launched a coordinated night attack on the British army and navy. A large formation of fire rafts connected by a chain was sent drifting towards the British ships at Canton, and fishing boats armed with matchlock guns began to engage the Royal Navy.
The British warships were able to evade the attack, and stray rafts set Canton's waterfront on fire, illuminating the river and foiling the night attack.
Downriver at Whampoa the Chinese attacked the British vessels at anchor there and attempted to prevent ships from reaching Canton.
Having suspected an attack, and as a consequence delaying his own offensive Major General Gough consolidated the British forces at Hong Kong and ordered a rapid advance upriver to Canton.
These reinforcements arrived on 25 May, and the British counter-attacked, taking the last four Qing forts above Canton and bombarding the city.
On 29 May a crowd of around 20, Cantonese villagers and townspeople attacked and defeated a company of 60 Indian sepoys in what became known as the Sanyuanli Incident , and Gough ordered a retreat back to the river.
The fighting subsided on 30 May and Canton came fully under British occupation. Under the terms of the limited peace later widely referred to as "The Ransom of Canton" , the British were paid to withdraw beyond the Bogue forts, an action they completed by 31 May.
The defence of Canton was declared a diplomatic success by Yishan. In a letter to the Emperor, he wrote that the barbarians had begged "the chief general that he would implore the great Emperor in their behalf, that he would have mercy upon them, and cause their debts to be repaid them, and graciously permit them to carry on their commerce, when they would immediately withdraw their ships from the Bocca Tigris, and never dare again to raise any disturbance.
The imperial court continued to debate China's next course of action for the war, as the Daoguang Emperor wanted Hong Kong retaken.
Following their withdraw from Canton, the British relocated the expeditionary force to Hong Kong. Just as with the Chinese commanders, the British leaders debated how the war should be continued.
Elliot wanted to cease military operations and reopen trade, while Major General Gough wanted to capture the city of Amoy and blockade the Yangtze River.
Pottinger wanted to negotiate terms with the Qing for the entire country of China, rather than just the Pearl River, and so he turned away Chinese envoys from Canton and gave permission for the expeditionary force to proceed with its war plans.
It was agreed by the British commanders that combat operations should be moved north to put pressure on Peking, and on 21 August the fleet sailed for Amoy.
The city was prepared for a naval assault, as Qing military engineers had built several artillery batteries into the granite cliffs overlooking the river.
A purely naval assault was considered too risky by Parker, prompting Gough to order a combined naval and ground attack on the defences.
On 26 August British marines and regular infantry under the covering fire of the Royal Navy flanked and destroyed the Chinese defences guarding the river.
Several large British ships failed to destroy the largest of the Chinese batteries which withstood over 12, cannonballs being fired at it ,  so the position was scaled and captured by the British infantry.
The city of Amoy was abandoned on 27 August, and British soldiers entered the inner town where they blew up the citadel's powder magazine.
As Lord Palmerston wanted Amoy to become an international trade port at the end of the war, Gough ordered that no looting be tolerated and had officers enforce the death penalty for anyone found to be plundering.
However, many Chinese merchants refused to ask for British protection out of fear of being branded as traitors to the Qing dynasty.
The British withdrew to an island on the river, where they established a small garrison and blockaded the Jiulong River.
With the city empty of any army, peasants, criminals, and deserters looted the town. The Qing army retook the city and restored order several days later, after which the city governor declared that a victory had been won and 5 British ships sunk.
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne replaced him, and sought a more measured approach to the situation in China. Lamb remained a supporter of the war.
In September , the British transport ship Nerbudda was shipwrecked on a reef off the northern coast of Taiwan after a brief gunnery duel with a Chinese fort.
This sinking was followed by the loss of the brig Ann on another reef in March The survivors of both ships were captured and marched to southern Taiwan, where they were imprisoned.
This became known as the Nerbudda incident. October saw the British solidify their control over the central Chinese coast.
Chusan had been exchanged for Hong Kong on the authority of Qishan in January , after which the island had been re-garrisoned by the Qing.
Fearing that the Chinese would improve the island's defences, the British began a military invasion. The British attacked the Qing on 1 October.
The battle of the Second Capture of Chusan ensued. The British forces killed Qing soldiers and captured Chusan. Resulting in a reestablished British control over Dinghai's important harbour.
On 10 October a British naval force bombarded and captured a fort on the outskirts of Ningbo in central China.
A battle broke out between the British army and a Chinese force of men on the road between the town of Chinhai and Ningbo, during which the Chinese were routed.
Following the defeat, Chinese authorities evacuated Ningbo and the empty city was taken by the British on 13 October. An imperial cannon manufactory in the city was captured by the British, reducing the ability of the Qing to replace their lost equipment, and the fall of the city threatened the nearby Qiantang River.
Admiral Parker and Superintendent Pottinger wanted a percentage of all captured Chinese property to be turned over to the British as legal prizes of war, while General Gough argued that this would only turn the Chinese population against the British, and that if property had to be seized, it should be public property rather than private.
Gough later stated that this edict would compel his men to "punish one set of robbers for the benefit of another.
Fighting ceased for the winter of while the British resupplied. In late the Daoguang Emperor discovered that his officials in Canton and Amoy had been sending him embellished reports.
He ordered the governor of Guangxi , Liang Chang-chü , to send him clear accounts of the events in Canton, noting that since Guangxi was a neighbouring province, Liang must be receiving independent accounts.
He warned Liang that he would be able to verify his information by obtaining secret inquiries from other places.
Now aware of the severity of the British threat, Chinese towns and cities began to fortify against naval incursions. In the spring of the Daoguang Emperor ordered his cousin Yijing to retake the city of Ningpo.
In the ensuing Battle of Ningpo on 10 March the British garrison repelled the assault with rifle fire and naval artillery. At Ningpo the British lured the Qing army into the city streets before opening fire, resulting in heavy Chinese casualties.
The important harbour of Zhapu was captured on 18 May in the Battle of Chapu. A holdout of soldiers of the Eight Banners stalled the advance of British army for several hours, an act of heroism that was commended by Gough.
With many Chinese ports now blockaded or under British occupation, Major General Gough sought to cripple the finances of the Qing Empire by striking up the Yangtze River.
On 14 June the mouth of the Huangpu River was captured by the British fleet. The undefended outskirts of Shanghai were occupied by the British on 19 June.
Following the battle, Shanghai was looted by retreating Qing banner-men, British soldiers, and local civilians. Qing Admiral Chen Huacheng was killed while defending a fort in Woosong.
However, British naval activity in Northern China led to resources and manpower being withdrawn to defend against a feared attack on Beijing.
Had it been signed, the British forces would have been paid to not enter the Yangtze River. On 14 July the British fleet on the Yangtze began to sail up the river.
Reconnaissance alerted Gough to the logistical importance of the city of Zhenjiang Chinkiang , and plans were made to capture it.
The Qing commanders inside the city were disorganised, with Chinese sources stating that over traitors were executed in Zhenjiang prior to the battle.
The Chinese defenders initially retreated into the surrounding hills, causing a premature British landing. Fighting erupted when thousands of Chinese soldiers emerged from the city, beginning the Battle of Zhenjiang.
British engineers blew open the western gate and stormed into the city, where fierce street to street fighting ensued.
Zhenjiang was devastated by the battle, with many Chinese soldiers and their families committing suicide rather than be taken prisoner.
After capturing Zhenjiang the British fleet cut the vital Grand Canal , paralysing the Caoyun system and severely disrupting the Chinese ability to distribute grain throughout the Empire.
They arrived outside the Jiangning District on 9 August, and were in position to assault the city by 11 August.
Although explicit permission to negotiate had not yet been granted by the emperor, Qing officials inside the city agreed to a British request to negotiate.
Negotiations lasted for several weeks as the British delegation insisted the treaty be accepted by Daoguang Emperor. The court advised the emperor to accept the treaty, and on 21 August the Daoguang Emperor authorised his diplomats to sign the peace treaty with the British.
The British military superiority during the conflict drew heavily on the success of the Royal Navy. British warships carried more guns than their Chinese opponents and were manoeuvrable enough to evade Chinese boarding actions.
Steam ships such as HMS Nemesis were able to move against winds and tides in Chinese rivers, and were armed with heavy guns and congreve rockets.
In terms of gunpowder, the British formula was better manufactured and contained more sulphur than the Chinese mixture. British artillery was lighter owing to improved forging methods and more manoeuvrable than the cannons used by the Chinese.
As with the naval artillery, British guns out-ranged the Chinese cannon. In terms of tactics, the British forces in China followed doctrines established during the Napoleonic Wars that had been adapted during the various colonial wars of the s and s.
Many of the British soldiers deployed to China were veterans of colonial wars in India and had experience fighting larger but technologically inferior armies.
Companies would commence firing volleys into the enemy ranks until they retreated. If a position needed to be taken, an advance or charge with bayonets would be ordered.
Light infantry companies screened the line infantry formations, protecting their flanks and utilising skirmishing tactics to disrupt the enemy.
During the conflict, the British superiority in range, rate of fire, and accuracy allowed the infantry to deal significant damage to their enemy before the Chinese could return fire.
The overall strategy of the British during the war was to inhibit the finances of the Qing Empire, with the ultimate goal of acquiring a colonial possession on the Chinese coast.
This was accomplished through the capture of Chinese cities and by blockading major river systems. This strategy was planned and implemented by Major General Gough, who was able to operate with minimal input from the British government after Superintendent Elliot was recalled in A Royal Navy steamship destroying a Chinese junk with a Congreve rocket.
Lightly armoured Chinese warships were decimated by heavy guns and explosive weaponry. China did not have a unified navy.
The remaining naval forces were badly overstretched, undermanned, underfunded and uncoordinated. From the onset of the war the Chinese navy was severely disadvantaged.
Chinese war junks were intended for use against pirates or equivalent types of vessels, and were more effective in close range river engagements.
Due to their ships' slow speeds, Qing captains consistently found themselves sailing towards much more manoeuvrable British ships, and as a consequence the Chinese could only use their bow guns.
Highly manoeuvrable steamships such HMS Nemesis could decimate small fleets of junks, as the junks had little chance of catching up to and engaging the faster British steamers.
The defensive nature of the conflict resulted in the Chinese relying heavily an extensive network of fortifications. The Kangxi Emperor — began the construction of river defences to combat pirates, and encouraged the use of western style cannons.
By the time of the First Opium War, multiple forts defended most major Chinese cities and waterways. Although the forts were well armed and strategically positioned, the Qing defeat exposed major flaws in their design.
The cannons used in the Qing defensive fortifications were a collection of Chinese, Portuguese, Spanish, and British pieces. The Chinese blend of gunpowder contained more charcoal than the British mixture did.
Many of the larger Chinese guns were built as fixed emplacements and were unable to be manoeuvred to fire at British ships.
At the start of the war the Qing army consisted of over , soldiers, with around , men being able to be called for war. These forces consisted of Manchu Bannermen , the Green Standard Army , provincial militias, and imperial garrisons.
The Qing dynasty also employed large batteries of artillery in battle. The tactics of the Qing remained consistent with what they had been in previous centuries.
Chinese melee formations were decimated by artillery, and Chinese soldiers armed with matchlocks could not effectively exchange fire with British ranks, who greatly out ranged them.
Many Qing cannon were destroyed by British counter-battery fire , and British light infantry companies were consistently able to outflank and capture Chinese artillery batteries.
Manchus] desperate; but neither are well commanded nor acquainted with European warfare. Having had, however, experience of three of them, I am inclined to suppose that a Tartar bullet is not a whit softer than a French one.
The strategy of the Qing dynasty during the war was to prevent the British from seizing Chinese territory. Qing defences on the Pearl and Yangtze rivers were ineffective in stopping the British push inland, and superior naval artillery prevented the Chinese from retaking cities.
Chinese soldiers armed with a gingal during the First Opium War. Painting of a battle between Qing matchlock -armed infantry and British line infantry at the Battle of Chinkiang.
The retreat of the Qing infantry into the city and the ensuing close-quarters combat led to heavy casualties on both sides. He denounced British violence against the Chinese and was ardently opposed to the British trade in opium to China.
The war marked the start of what 20th century Chinese nationalists called the " Century of Humiliation ". The ease with which the British forces defeated the numerically superior Chinese armies damaged the Qing dynasty's prestige.
The Treaty of Nanking was a step to opening the lucrative Chinese market to global commerce and the opium trade. The interpretation of the war, which was long the standard in the People's Republic of China, was summarised in The Opium War, "in which the Chinese people fought against British aggression, marked the beginning of modern Chinese history and the start of the Chinese people's bourgeois-democratic revolution against imperialism and feudalism.
The Treaty of Nanking, the Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue, and two French and American agreements were all "unequal treaties" signed between and The terms of these treaties undermined China's traditional mechanisms of foreign relations and methods of controlled trade.
Five ports were opened for trade, gunboats, and foreign residence: Guangzhou, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai. Hong Kong was seized by the British to become a free and open port.
Tariffs were abolished thus preventing the Chinese from raising future duties to protect domestic industries and extraterritorial practices exempted Westerners from Chinese law.
This made them subject to their own civil and criminal laws of their home country. Most importantly, the opium problem was never addressed and after the treaty was signed opium addiction doubled.
China was forced to pay 21 million silver taels as an indemnity, which was used to pay compensation for the traders' opium destroyed by Commissioner Lin.
A couple of years after the treaties were signed internal rebellion began to threaten foreign trade. Due to the Qing government's inability to control collection of taxes on imported goods, the British government convinced the Manchu court to allow Westerners to partake in government official affairs.
By the s the Chinese Maritime Customs Service , one of the most important bureaucracies in the Manchu Government, was partially staffed and managed by Western Foreigners.
Commissioner Lin, often referred to as "Lin the Clear Sky" for his moral probity,  was made a scapegoat.
He was blamed for ultimately failing to stem the tide of opium imports and usage as well as for provoking an unwinnable war through his rigidity and lack of understanding of the changing world.
The First Opium War both reflected and contributed to a further weakening of the Chinese state's power and legitimacy.
The decline of the Qing dynasty was beginning to be felt by much of the Chinese population. The evil impact of the opium habit on the Chinese people, and the arrogant manner in which the British imposed their superior power to guarantee the profitable trade, have been the staples of Chinese historiography ever since.
However, there is a revisionist interpretation, set out by the American historian John K. Fairbank :. Some historians claim that Lord Palmerston, the British Foreign Secretary, initiated the Opium War to maintain the principle of free trade.
China was pressing Britain just when the British faced serious pressures in the Near East, on the Indian frontier, and in Latin America.
In the end, says Melancon, the government's need to maintain its honour in Britain and prestige abroad forced the decision to go to war.
The most recent version is by Australian historian Harry G. Gelber who argues that opium played a role similar to the tea dumped into the harbour in the Boston Tea Party Of leading to the American Revolutionary War.
Gelber argues instead that:. Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres.
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